Advances in Animal Science, Theriogenology, Genetics and Breeding

Editorial - (2021) Volume 9, Issue 1

Animal health welfare, products, controls and human treatment
Andrew Pastoret*
Department of Publications, World Organization for Animal Health, rue de Prony, Paris, France
*Correspondence: Andrew Pastoret, Department of Publications, World Organization for Animal Health, rue de Prony, Paris, France,

Received: 08-Mar-2021 Published: 29-Mar-2021


Animal health prevalent, such as avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease, may cause major economic mislaying to local, domestic or international markets. In addition, they may become technical, economic, political, and diplomatic or trade issues in countries. Health authorities round the world should cooperate to realize early detection and diagnosis for his or her prevention or containment and eradication.

The aspect of human treatment and welfare of food animals merits increased attention worldwide. Evidence urges that animal stressing may damage meat quality and cause contamination shedding and cross-contamination. However, ignoring of whether good animal husbandry practices make meat products safer or of better quality, human treatment of animals is socially essential and should be practiced by all involved in animal handling.

Animal Health Products

Animal health or veterinary drug products are the materials intended for animals aside from humans, including drugs utilized in animal feeds. These drugs could also be an equivalent because the human drug approved through the NDA, but approval of a replacement animal drugs application (NADA) is required for marketing. Additional requirements for “animals for food” include environmental impacts, human toxicology, and residue levels in meat for food consumption. Because most dosage forms for animals are similar to those for the human product, the preformulation study should be the same or should be modified slightly if problems such as mixing homogeneity or instability of “premix” occur.

Animal Health Controls

Animal health laws also apply cross-frontier controls, but they operate entirely separately from the CITES provisions described previously. Animal health legislation often requires authorization (usually issued by the ministry liable for agriculture) to import many species of mammal and bird. This legislation also involves veterinary health certification and quarantine for live animals. For such controls to use to reptiles is unusual. However, permission could also be necessary to import pathogenic reptile material, for instance, blood or tissues, particularly when the samples aren't fixed. Authorization may include conditions concerning packaging, storage, and disposal of the fabric.

Some countries forbid the export of indigenous species or derivatives thereof except under license. In addition, national controls could also be found on the export and exploitation of genetic materials under legislation implementing the Biodiversity Convention. This might apply to material derived from reptiles and intended to be screened for potential value in developing modern medicines.

Animals imported normally are subject to a country's taxes like customs and value added (sales) tax. Animal health management and merchandise internal control have evolved from a solely curative veterinary practice, where disease or quality problems were addressed once the matter had arisen, to the application of veterinary herd health and production management programs, where herd performance was monitored in an operational setting so as to raised prevent disorders. Herd health and production management programs are much more focused on early disease detection, herd monitoring and risk assessment of health, reproduction and productivity disorders.

More recently, more emphasis is placed on the difficulty of quality of the merchandise (e.g. milk and meat) and the production process. The latter includes aspects like animal health status and animal welfare, and environmental issues. There is an increasing tendency that livestock production is integrated into food production chains, from the farm level up to the buyer level. An important element in such production chains is that every link should provide subsequent link with safeguards regarding the merchandise delivered.

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