Advances in Animal Science, Theriogenology, Genetics and Breeding

Perspective - (2023) Volume 11, Issue 1

Aspects and effective policy of animal breeding
Jack Kater*
Department of Animal Genetics and Conservation, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: Jack Kater, Department of Animal Genetics and Conservation, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland,

Received: 29-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AASTGB-23-93504; Editor assigned: 31-Mar-2023, Pre QC No. AASTGB-23-93504 (PQ); Reviewed: 14-Apr-2023, QC No. AASTGB-23-93504; Revised: 29-May-2023, Manuscript No. AASTGB-23-93504 (R); Published: 05-Jun-2023, DOI: 10.51268/2736- 1810.23.11.068


Effective policies remain critical to global efforts towards sustainable development, including in the livestock sector. The concept of sustainability has evolved over time. As the 20th century progressed, the goal of sustainability gradually moved away from the obvious one of ensuring the protection of consumable resources such as fish, timber and fodder. The global agenda for change proposed by the brundtland commission has expanded the scope of the concept of sustainability to include aspects of distribution, particularly between current and future generations. The passage of the Rio declaration in 1992 further promoted the concept of sustainability and the need to account for negative impacts across generations and share benefits between developed and developing countries. The United Nations 2030 agenda and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offer a new overarching pathway to sustainability in which agriculture in general and the livestock sector plays a key role. Sustainability is a long term goal that has evolved over time. However, this may only be possible if protecting human interests involves understanding the interdependence of all species living on the planet. It is based on the fact that humans and other living organisms are interdependent for their well-being and therefore need to meet the interdependent needs of multiple species in current and future generations. Common elements are resource efficiency, profitability, productivity, environmental sustainability, biodiversity, social sustainability, and ethical dimensions. A key question in livestock farming is how these factors can be taken into account to apply sustainability to livestock farming. Future genetics concepts include quality (product quality and safety), diversity (biodiversity and adaptability), acceptability (ethics and animal welfare), environment (pollution and feed resources), economics (efficiency, both short and long term) were included semester), all of which must be considered when developing breeding programs to improve the genetic makeup of livestock populations. All these important aspects of sustainability should be considered when setting breeding targets, taking into account species and breed diversity. Genetics for future use therefore interprets as the breeding industry's duty/obligation to ensure that breeding material is available to livestock farmers and that genetics meet the needs of a wide range of current and future stakeholders. Can do. The livestock sector relies on genetics developed by ranchers and the breeding industry, so these genetics must meet customer needs and be socially acceptable.


Strategies for livestock sector development

Government policies are often aimed at providing broad direction for the development of the livestock sector. National policies and strategies for livestock sector/agricultural development take into account many internal and external factors, such as cultural and religious aspects, current levels of livestock production, human technical expertise and capabilities, organization of the sector, etc. is needed. Financial resources, infrastructure and services, and potential markets for animal products. Policies and strategies should encourage farmers to take advantage of opportunities to improve livestock production in the most sustainable and practical ways to maximize positive economic and social outcomes while preventing or mitigating negative impacts and breeders should be encouraged. In many developed countries, the public sector has played an important role in the formulation and implementation of national strategies for livestock development, particularly with regard to animal husbandry and breeding. Each country had a national body responsible for providing reproductive services such as performance evaluation, genetic evaluation and selection, to varying degrees depending on country and livestock species. Over time, the role of the public sector diminished or was replaced by breeder organizations and commercial breeding services. The speed and extent of this process varied widely across European countries. In the United States and Canada, the process was much faster. In many developing countries, the government's role in establishing breeding services and providing breeding material remains very important, and government breeding stations play an important role in breed improvement programs and the dissemination of genetic advances. However, with the support of NGOs, cooperative breeding companies of varying size and membership have been established. The concept of community breeding programs is also encouraged, especially for sheep and goats, or if the breed is regionally distributed. Over time, animal husbandry and livestock development interest groups became more widespread, and public sector involvement was gradually replaced by cooperatives/private bodies. Since the 1980’s, commercial breeding companies, established primarily in developed countries, have developed very rapidly, with dynamic changes in ownership, partnerships and markets. Competitiveness within the breeding industry has increased the concentration of this sector with frequent company consolidations and acquisitions. The breeding industry includes multinational breeding companies, family businesses and cooperatives. They operate on a global, regional and national level, primarily in poultry, pig and dairy farming. In developed countries, the diverse interests of society in animal husbandry and production are gradually increasing. Animal welfare, the safety of animal derived products, the environmental impacts of livestock farming and its contribution to climate change, and the erosion of animal genetic resources raise significant concerns, prompting the development of strategies to address these issues. Both within Europe and around the world, there are significant cultural differences in public attitudes towards animal husbandry. Most consumers support guidelines on access to information, mandatory labelling and setting minimum standards.


Public interest in the development of the livestock sector is growing due to calls for government action on climate change and a growing understanding of climate change issues in livestock. Most recently, the livestock component was also widely discussed in relation to the biodiversity crisis and his COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the benefits and potential negative impacts of livestock production arguably highlights the need for sustainability across all subsectors of agriculture. Some argue that animals should be seen as stakeholders and included in the sustainability debate. Many issues related to sustainability and sustainable development is complex and challenging for decision makers, requiring compromises and compromises.

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