Editorial - (2021) Volume 6, Issue 4
Anemia is a condition in which there is not enough healthy red blood cells to carry enough oxygen to the body tissues. Anemia, also known as low hemoglobin, can cause fatigue and weakness. There are many forms of anemia, each with its own cause. The Complete Blood Count test (CBC) measures red blood cells, hemoglobin, and other parts of the blood. Perform a blood smear or derivative test to count white blood cells, check the shape of the red blood cells, and check for abnormal cells. Count reticulocytes and look for immature red blood cells.
Anemia is a low number of red blood cells. Regular blood tests report anemia as low hemoglobin or low hematocrit. Hemoglobin is the major protein in red blood cells. It transports oxygen and delivers it through your body. In the case of anemia, hemoglobin levels are also low. If it is low enough, the tissue or organ may not be getting enough oxygen. Symptoms of anemia, such as fatigue and shortness of breath, occur because the organs do not have what they need to do. Anemia is the most common blood disorder in the United States, affecting nearly 6% of the population. Women, children, and people with long-term illnesses are more likely to suffer from anemia.
The signs of anemia are so mild that they may go unnoticed. Symptoms often appear at some point when blood cells begin to decrease. Depending on the cause of the anemia, symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, headache, pain in the bones, chest, abdomen, joints, and shortness of breath may occur.
The causes of anemia are:
• Anemia due to blood loss.
• Anemia caused by decreased or deficient production of red blood cells.
• Anemia due to the destruction of red blood cells.
Treatment of anemia depends on the type of anemia. Because of the many causes, there are also many treatments, including:
• If anyone has aplastic anemia may require medication, blood transfusions (when blood is taken from another person), or bone marrow transplants (when stem cells are taken from a donor).
• If anyone has hemolytic anemia, may require drugs to suppress the immune system.
• If the cause is blood loss, surgery may be done to find and correct the bleeding. If someone suffers from iron deficiency anemia, they probably need to take iron supplements and change their diet.
• Treatment of sickle cell anemia includes painkillers, folic acid supplements, intermittent antibiotics, or oxygen therapy.
• If someone has vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency, they will be prescribed dietary supplements.
• Thalassemia usually does not require treatment, but in severe cases it can be transfused, bone marrow transplanted or operated on.
When symptoms get worse, blood transfusions and injections of synthetic hormones (erythropoietin), which are normally produced by the kidneys, stimulate the production of red blood cells and help relieve fatigue.