Advances in Animal Science, Theriogenology, Genetics and Breeding

Commentary - (2021) Volume 9, Issue 4

Factors influencing animal welfare and basic medication
Emily Ankeny*
Department of Animal Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia
*Correspondence: Emily Ankeny, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia,


It is very important to strictly follow the vaccination schedule recommended by your veterinarian to keep your livestock healthy. Veterinarians should be familiar with the illnesses found in your area. Vaccines are active or inactivated pathogens used to boost the immunity of livestock against certain diseases. They have played an important role in eradicating some of the most dangerous diseases in both humans and livestock. Applying a vaccine is an inexpensive way to protect the entire herd from catastrophic diseases such as Newcastle disease. Newcastle disease is irreparable and can kill all chickens throughout the village. Another example of a deadly disease that can kill all goats and half sheep is goat pests, or small ruminant pests (PPRs). There is no cure for PPR, but vaccination can prevent it. Keeping up to date with which vaccinations are important for the success of livestock in your area is a very important management tool.

Vaccines deteriorate rapidly and lose their potency within hours when exposed to high temperatures and should always be refrigerated or frozen (depending on the manufacturer's instructions). New so-called "heat-stability" vaccines are becoming available. It is more resistant to warm temperatures and can be stored for days (and possibly weeks) without refrigeration or freezing. After opening the vaccine vial, the entire contents should be used quickly. Unused vaccine remaining in the opened vial cannot be stored for future use. It is recommended that multiple farmers work together to vaccinate the animals on the same day. In this way, they share the cost of purchasing the vaccine, make the most of the contents of the vaccine ampoule, and make vaccination cheaper. The vaccine should be handled and administered by a trained veterinarian. In most cases you will have to rely on your local veterinarian to get your animal vaccinated. Chicken eye drop vaccination against Newcastle disease can be done by trained farmers.

Health is a dynamic and ongoing process of all living individuals dealing with everything they encounter in an environment that can affect us. Pathogens, parasites, and many stressors are present in human and animal life. All organisms have an immune system that should be supported to combat these bacteria. All forms of stress and pressure can confuse this. Organic livestock is focused on improving the living conditions of animals and promoting their health. This strengthens the immune system and can withstand all external influences exposed to pressure and stress. Feed to treat illness, treat sick animals, think about any problems with animal rearing and treatment, and why the animal's immune system was unable to fight off the disease or parasite attack. Livestock farming in organic farming differs from both widespread livestock farming, which is often harmful to the environment (eg, overgrazing in commons), and intensive livestock farming, which keeps animals unethical.

The view of animal welfare in organic farming takes the issues of animal health and animal welfare seriously and is based on the ecological principles summarized in the next chapter. It provides fairly detailed guidelines for raising animals. Animals are an important part of organic farms. You are part of a system where all parts work together for mutual benefit. But until recently, much attention was paid to crops, soil fertility, plant health, and crop rotation design, and animals were not a high priority. This is surprising as Farm animals make important contributions to organic farming systems. With the negative side effects of intensive and industrial animal production became a major driving force behind the advance of animal welfare standards.

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