Commentary - (2022) Volume 10, Issue 3
Received: 25-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. AASTGB-22-88056; Editor assigned: 28-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. AASTGB-22-88056(PQ); Reviewed: 15-Dec-2022, QC No. AASTGB-22-88056; Revised: 22-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. AASTGB-22-88056(R); Published: 29-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.51268/2736-1810-22.10.059
Dairying, also known as dairy farming, branch of agriculture that encompasses the breeding, raising and utilization of dairy farm animals, primarily cows, for the production of milk and also the various dairy products which we will processed from it (Sett, 2021)
Milk for human consumption is made primarily by the cow and buffalo. The goat is also a very important milk producer in China, India and other Asian countries and in Egypt. Goat’s milk is also available in Europe and North America, compared to cow’s milk. Buffalo’s milk is made in doing commercial quantities in some countries, like India. Wherever the case, buffalo’s milk is employed in the same manner as of cow’s milk and in some areas the community milk which consists of a mixture of both. Good dairy farming practices for animal health establishing the herd with resistance to diseases preventing the entry of disease on to the farm establishing effective herd health management and victimization of all chemicals and veterinary medicines as directed (Grimwood, 2022).
The objective of good dairy farming is that the on-farm production of safe, quality milk from healthy animals under acceptable conditions. To achieve this end, dairy farm producers should adapt Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) within the following areas. Animal health Poor animal health is one of all the principal constraints to increasing small-scale dairy farm productivity because it results in high morbidity and low production. Overcoming this constraint might considerably improve productivity and lead to real and direct profits for producers (Fadda, 2022).
Milking hygiene Most small-scale dairy farm producers in developing countries milk their animals by hand usually within the presence of the calf to stimulate milk release. Wherever labour is used hand-milking permits milk extraction with lowest capital investment, equipment maintenance and cleaning.
On medium to large dairy farm farms, where improved dairy farm breeds are used, it's a lot more common and convenient to milk animals with milking machines. No matter the milking technique (hand or machine) it's crucial to avoid contamination of the milk during and after milking. Good dairy farming for milking hygiene are ensuring that milking routines don't injure the animals or introduce contaminants into the milk that milking is administrated under hygienic conditions; and that milk is handled properly once milking.
Nutrition (feed and water). A dairy farm animal’s health and productivity and the quality and safety of its milk, rely on providing the proper feed and water. For feed and nutrients of dairy farm animals depend upon factors like physiological state, milk production level, age, sex, body condition, weight, weight gain, health condition, level of activity and exercise, climate and season. The feeding of livestock is a major challenge in several developing countries. This challenge is even greater in the tropics due to seasonal fluctuations in the availableness of feed caused by periods without rainfall and also the poor quality of feed. Once producers cannot rely on locally available feed resources, the feeding of dairy farm animals will become expensive. The feeding ways employed by small-scale dairy farm producers in developing countries are grazing, which needs fairly massive areas tethering, which allows full use of edge verges, areas around cropland etc. and stall or pen feeding, which needs a lot of labour inputs (Cassimatis, 2021).
Dairy farm animals consume massive amounts of water for milk production and maternity therefore has a great influence on milk production. Good dairy farming practices for nutrition are securing feed and water suitable quantity and quality making proper controlling of storage conditions of feed by maintaining under hygienic condition and ensuring the traceability of feedstuffs brought on to the farm. Animal welfare: Animal welfare is the application of smart and sensitive husbandry practices to the dairy farm animals on a farm. These practices should be applied to not solely on milk producing animals but also on young stock, replacements and males in rearing units.
Good dairy farming practices for the socio-economic management of dairy farms are implementing effective and responsible management of human resources ensuring that farm tasks are carried out safely and competently and managing the enterprise to ensure its financial viability.
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