Journal of Science and Geosciences

Commentary - (2022) Volume 10, Issue 3

Microplastics and its impact on environment
Ivan Miller*
Department of Applied Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
*Correspondence: Ivan Miller, Department of Applied Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy,

Received: 17-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. JSG-22-77823; Editor assigned: 19-Aug-2022, Pre QC No. JSG-22-77823 (PQ); Reviewed: 05-Sep-2022, QC No. JSG-22-77823; Revised: 13-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. JSG-22-77823 (R); Published: 22-Sep-2022, DOI: 10.51268/2736-187X.22.10.79


Microplastic is described by the European Chemicals Agency (ECA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) as tiny plastic particles up to 5 mm in size. These tiny particles enter the natural ecosystem via a variety of sources. Microplastics can be found in a wide range of products, including cosmetics, synthetic garments, and plastic bags and bottles. Many of these materials are easily released into the environment as garbage.

Carbon and hydrogen atoms are linked together in polymer chains to form microplastics. Other compounds found in microplastics include phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and tetrabromobisphenol A and many of these chemical additions leach out of the plastics when they enter the environment.

Types of Microplastics

Primary microplastics

This form of microplastic is abundant in the environment, and the oceans contain up to 31% of all primary plastic.

Secondary microplastics

It is created as a by-product of plastic breakdown. Fishing nets, bottles, and plastic bottles are examples of larger plastics. Oceans contain around 80% of secondary microplastic.

Impacts on Environment

Microplastics are a threat to both marine and terrestrial life. Birds and turtles have been proven to be the most vulnerable to microplastics. Microplastics enter the animal's body and block the digestive tracts. This circumstance causes them to starve to death by suppressing their need to eat. Microplastic in the body modifies feeding behavior while also suppressing growth and the reproductive system.

Microplastics do not degrade. As a result, primary and secondary microplastics collect and survive in the environment. Microplastics have been discovered in a wide range of settings, including marine and freshwater ecosystems. In the early twenty-first century, annual plastic pollution from all sorts of plastics was projected to be 4 million to 14 million tonnes in the oceans alone. Microplastics, which are found in dust and airborne fibre particles, are also a source of air pollution. The health consequences of inhaling microplastics remain unknown.

Microplastics have been discovered in the digestive systems and tissues of several invertebrate sea species, including crabs. Microplastics floating on the water's surface are likely to be consumed by fish and birds which mistake the plastic particles for food. Microplastics ingestion can cause aquatic organisms to consume less food, resulting in less energy to carry out life processes, as well as neurological and reproductive damage. Microplastics are thought to have made their way up the marine food chain, from zooplankton and small fish to huge marine predators.

Microplastics have been found in water, beer, and food goods such as seafood and table salt. Microplastics were retrieved from stool samples of every participant in a preliminary research including eight people from eight different countries. Microplastics have also been discovered in human tissues and organs. The ramifications of these discoveries for human health were unknown.


The environment is being polluted by plastic garbage. The breakdown of plastics into microplastics has a harmful influence on the environment. Microplastics are small particles that can be found in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Microplastics contain synthetic substances such as BPA, phthalates, and others.

Get the App