Commentary - (2022) Volume 10, Issue 2
Received: 03-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. AASTGB-22-77817; Editor assigned: 06-Aug-2022, Pre QC No. AASTGB-22-77817(PQ); Reviewed: 21-Aug-2022, QC No. AASTGB-22-77817; Revised: 28-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. AASTGB-22-77817(R); Published: 06-Sep-2022, DOI: 10.51268/2736-1810.22.10.060
The goal of good dairy practice is to produce safe, high-quality milk in farms from healthy animals under generally acceptable conditions. To achieve this goal, milk producers must apply good agricultural practices. Good dairy animal health management results in disease-resistant herds. Prevent disease from entering our farm. Establish effective herd health management, use all chemicals and veterinary drugs as directed.
Barns should have a 10' * 5.5' footprint per animal with a 1.5% slope to the drain. The floor should be made of coarse concrete material. The shed must be at least 10 feet tall. They can be tiled, RCC, or thatched. Only the west side of the hut should be bricked, the remaining three sides of it should be left open. However, the open sides should be covered with burlap in winter to protect the animal from the cold. There should also be a way to spray the animals with water every 30 minutes in the summer. This greatly reduces heat stress. The east side of the hut is open to the outside for freedom of movement. The hiking area is lined with trees that provide shade. Neem and mango trees are the best trees for shade in roaming areas.
A dairy cow's feed and nutritional requirements depend on factors such as physiological condition, milk yield, age, sex, body condition, body weight, weight gain, health, level of activity and exercise, climate and season. Feeding livestock is a major challenge for many developing countries. In the tropics, this challenge is compounded by seasonal variations in forage availability and poor forage quality caused by periods of no precipitation. Dairy feed can be more expensive if producers cannot rely on locally available feed resources. The feeding method used by small-scale milk producers in developing countries is grazing, which requires a very large area. Tethering that can make full use of road sides and farmland. Stalling or pen feeding that requires more effort. Where supplements are provided, these may be given to the whole herd or to individual animals. Dairy cows use large amounts of water for milk production and gestation. Water has a significant impact on milk production.
Agriculture and animal husbandry have a symbiotic relationship, Where areas in agriculture providing fodder for livestock, and animals providing milk, manure, and traction for various farms. The dairy sector contributes to India's socio-economic transformation. It creates many employment opportunities and also enhances nutritional benefits as well.
The demand for milk is constantly increasing not only in cities, but also in small towns and rural areas. Factors influencing this growth in demand are rapid population growth, widespread education, increased nutrition awareness and increasing consumer purchasing power.
In 1997, most dairy cows (56.3%) were on small commercial dairy farms (10-199 cows), while farms with herds of at least 1,000 cows accounted for 17.5% of all dairy cows. I only owned it. These numbers changed significantly over the next two decades. The number of small commercial dairy farms has decreased by two-thirds, and the share of total dairy cows has decreased to 21.6%. Meanwhile, the number of farms with at least 1,000 cows has more than doubled, with these large dairy farms holding 55.2% of all US cattle.
Proposed solutions include raising awareness of the risks of antibiotics and their impact on food quality, and implementing a five-step natural farming approach to reduce the use of antibiotics and other chemicals. This approach involves improving animal and farm management, activating ethno veterinary knowledge and using medicinal plants, Genetic improvement through the strategic use of local breeds, Establishing quality control systems in the milk chain, Residue-free milk from farmers. We have a love for cows and buffaloes, basic cleanliness practices, knowledge of scientific dairy farm management.
The focus on crossbreeding and increasing the productivity of dairy cattle has led to an increase in the use of pesticides, mainly antibiotics. These pesticide residues are released into the environment, affecting natural processes and soil life. Milk and meat residues also have public health implications, especially in countries with poor food quality control.