Opinion - (2022) Volume 10, Issue 2
Received: 05-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. AASTGB-22-77818; Editor assigned: 09-Aug-2022, Pre QC No. AASTGB-22-77818(PQ); Reviewed: 23-Aug-2022, QC No. AASTGB-22-77818; Revised: 30-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. AASTGB-22-77818(R); Published: 09-Sep-2022, DOI: 10.51268/2736-1810.22.10.059
Huge variety of wildlife animals (including mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, amphibians and invertebrates) are used to:
Understanding species behaviour, ecology, species conservation, population management, assessing control strategies, understanding the role of wildlife in disease transmission.
Wild animals are used worldwide for research and management purposes. Animals are often subjected to similar procedures and welfare risks through capture, anesthesia, handling, sampling, tagging, and sometimes selective removal.
Activities that are purely administrative in nature, such as species conservation or population health monitoring, animal testing. The EU Directive states that "capable of causing pain, suffering or lasting harm equal to penetration of an animal.
Studying animals in their natural environment and habitat is also an important part of research as it allows us to better understand their living conditions, behavioral patterns and physiology. Camera traps used to collect data and gives us opportunity to monitor different species.
Cultural and economic factors also significantly influence attitudes towards wildlife welfare interventions. Providing high standards of wildlife care and treatment is expensive and funding these efforts is not easy. Organizations tend to focus resources on species which are more important. Many wildlife clinics carry common species, although they may be relatively rare. It has been suggested that techniques developed by processing common species may find important future applications in endangered species (e.g. Coles 1985; Cooper 1989). In many cases, interventions have been still being done to save animals that are endangered by purely natural events. For example, in 1985 in southern France, 1,000 extreme cold-weakened Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterusruber were captured and held captive for protection until the weather improved.
There are three different methods:
1. Fatal - the animal was "sacrificed".
2. Invasive - defined as affecting the physicalintegrity of an animal.
3. Non-invasive – e.g. plucked feathers, cheekswabs, faeces.
Some wildlife diseases can be transmitted to livestock and affect agriculture and human health. Bovine tuberculosis, caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis, is a major veterinary health problem worldwide. The disease can be spread among cattle through coughing, especially in crowded stalls, and contaminated feed and water sources.
Another wildlife vaccine with conservation application is being developed to combat white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has led to the decline and near-extinction of several species of hibernating bats in North America. Before exotic disease arrives in the country, vaccination may be used to protect susceptible animals, there by reducing the possibility of the disease and spreading before its arrival. a) Difficulty in confirming whether a vaccinated animal is infected or not - Vaccination may suppress suppress the development of clinical signs of disease.
b) Trade issues - The presence of vaccinated animals may delay the resumption of normal trade in animals and animal products.
c) Vaccinated animals not allowed to enter food chain - Vaccinated animals or their products may be ineligible to enter the food chain.
d) Insufficient capacity to cull or insufficient capacity for car case disposal.
Animals are vaccinated primarily for human-centric reasons. This is to prevent certain wild animal diseases from being transmitted to humans or animals. However, vaccination has a very positive effect on the vaccinated animal itself.
Preventive medical programs should be dynamic and consider the individual animal and its population we have to done Quarantine of Zoo Animals, Parasite control of Zoo Animals, Vaccination of Zoo Animals, Postmortem of Zoo Animals, Pest Control and their Nutrition aspects.